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Study Material

CLAT LEGAL-2018

Q. No. : 1 - Article 51-A on Fundamental Duties was inserted into the Constitution of India through the

Options:

1) 41 Constitution (Amendment) Act, 1976

2) 44 Constitution (Amendment) Act, 1978

3) 40 Constitution (Amendment) Act, 1976

4) 42 Constitution (Amendment) Act, 1976

Correct Answer: 4) 42 Constitution (Amendment) Act, 1976



Q. No. : 2 - The highest law officer in India is the

Options:

1) Attorney General

2) Advocate General

3) Solicitor General

4) Chief Justice of th e Supreme Court of India

Correct Answer: 1) Attorney General



Q. No. : 3 - How many languages are there in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India?

Options:

1) 21

2) 22

3) 19

4) 18

Correct Answer: 1) 21



Q. No. : 4 - A Panchayat Samiti at the block level in India is only a/an:

Options:

1) Administrative authority

2) Co-ordinating and Supervisory authority

3) Consultative Committee

4) Advisory body

Correct Answer: 2) Co-ordinating and Supervisory authority



Q. No. : 5 - Which of the following is NOT a fundamental duty as per the provisions of the Constitution of India?

Options:

1) To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India

2) To join the Defence Forces of India

3) To defend the country and render na tional service when called upon to do so

4) To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture

Correct Answer: 2) To join the Defence Forces of India



Q. No. : 6 - The Right to Education Act, 2009 (RTE) provides for free and compulsory education to:

Options:

1) All illiterate children of India

2) All citizens of India

3) Children aged between 6 and 14 years

4) All children up to the age of 10 years

Correct Answer: 3) Children aged between 6 and 14 years



Q. No. : 7 - Directions: The question below consists of two statements, one labeled as ‘Assertion’ (A) and another as ‘Reason’ (R). Examine these two statements carefully and select the answers to these items from the codes given below.

Assertion (A): It is the legal and constitutional duty of the State to provide legal aid to the poor.

Reason (R): No one should be denied justice by reason of his poverty.

Codes:

Options:

1) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation to A

2) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation to A

3) A is true but R is false

4) A is false but R is true

Correct Answer: 1) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation to A



Q. No. : 8 - Which was the law introduced by Sir William Bentinck to prohibit the practice of Sati?

Options:

1) Bengal Sati Regulation, 1829

2) U.P. Sati Prohibition Act, 1828

3) Indian Sati Prohibition Act, 182 7

4) Rajasthan Sati (Prevention) Act, 1 830

Correct Answer: 1) Bengal Sati Regulation, 1829



Q. No. : 9 - Legal Principle: Nothing is an ‘offence’, if committed by a child below seven years of age.

Fact Situation: Adil, aged six years, is a student of class one. He placed his sharpened pencil on the bench with its pointed end up when his classmate Ajay stood up to answer a question from the teacher.

Ajay gets hurt when he sits on the pencil and Adil and his friends have a good laugh. Ajay’s father, on seeing his son injured when he returns home, wants action against Adil.

Which of the following statements is the most appropriate in relation to the legal principle stated above?

Options:

1) Adil has committed an ‘offence’.

2) Adil has not committed any ‘offence’.

3) Childish pranks cannot be investigated by the police.

4) The class teacher must be arrested.

Correct Answer: 2) Adil has not committed any ‘offence’.



Q. No. : 10 - Legal Principle: The doctrine of basic structure in Constitutional jurisprudence means that the Constitution of India has certain basic features that cannot be taken away through amendments by the Parliament. The power of judicial review is a part of the basic structure and it helps the constitutional Courts to determine whether an amendment is against the basic structure or not.

Fact Situation: Parliament proposes an amendment to limit the power of appeal against conviction for the offence of Sedition, to be exercised only by the Supreme Court of India.

Which of the following statements is the most appropriate in relation to the legal principle stated above?

Options:

1) The proposed amendment is against the doctrine of basic structure.

2) The proposed amendment is unconnected to the doctrine of basic structure.

3) The proposed amendment can be reviewed and struck down by the Constitutional Courts.

4) The proposed amendment is beyond the power of the Parliament.

Correct Answer: 3) The proposed amendment can be reviewed and struck down by the Constitutional

Courts.

Q. No. : 11 - Who among the following was the first Chairman of the Constituent Assembly in India?

Options:

1) Dr. Rajendra Prasad

2) Dr. Sachchidananda Sinha

3) Harendra Coomar Mookerje e

4) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar

Correct Answer: 2) Dr. Sachchidananda Sinha



Q. No. : 12 - Legal Principle: It is an offence to obstruct a public servant in the due discharge of his duty. Right of private defence is available to protect one’s person and property.

Fact Situation: Sidhu comes to the rescue of his uncle who is sought to be taken into a car by some men. In the process, he causes injury to some of them. Later, it turns out that the men were police persons in plain clothes trying to enforce a warrant against his uncle.

Which of the following statements is the most appropriate in relation to the legal principle stated above?

Options:

1) Sidhu has committed the offence of obstructing a public servant in due discharge of his duty.

2) Sidhu has not committed an offence since he did not know that the men were from the police.

3) Sidhu’s uncle has resisted arrest and should be proceeded against.

4) Sidhu should not have tried to help his uncle without ascertaining th e fact

Correct Answer: 2) Sidhu has not committed an offence since he did not know that the men were from the police.



Q. No. : 13 - Legal Principle: An employer is liable for the act of his servant performed during the course of employment.

Fact Situation: While working as a driver for Verma, Alok sometimes used to earn some side income by carrying parcels for others in Verma’s car without his knowledge or permission. While going to pick Verma from the airport one day, Alok stopped to deliver a parcel he was carrying with him. While he was delivering the parcel, which unknown to him was one of contraband goods, the police arrested Alok.

Which of the following statements is the most appropriate in relation to the legal principle stated above?

Options:

1) Verma is liable for the act of Alok since he is Verma’s driver.

2) Verma is liable for the act of Alok since he had gone to pick V erma from the airport.

3) Verma is not liable for the act of Alok since Alok himself did not know that he was ca rrying contraband goods.

4) Verma is not liable for the act of Alok since carrying the parcel was not in the course of his employment.

Correct Answer: 4) Verma is not liable for the act of Alok since carrying the parcel was not in the course of his employment.



Q. No. : 14 - Which law introduced the system of dyarchy in India during the British reign?

Options:

1) The Government of India Act,1858

2) The Government of India Act, 1909

3) The Government of India Act, 1919

4) The Government of India Act, 1935

Correct Answer: 3) The Government of India Act, 1919



Q. No. : 15 - Legal Principle: The Latin maxim nemo bis punitur pro eodem delictomeans that nobody can be punished twice for the same offence.

Fact Situation: Sajan, a petty thief, is caught and thrashed thoroughly by the people before being handed over to the police. Sajan pleads before the magistrate that since he was already thrashed by the people he should not be again punished by the State.

Which of the following statements is the most appropriate in relation to the legal principle stated above?

Options:

1) Sajan is right since nobody should be punished for the same offence twice.

2) Thrashing given by the people does not amount to legal punishment and so Sajan can be punished by the State.

3) Giving a good thrashing to the thief is the best form of punishment to prevent future theft.

4) The Magistrate should take into consideration the thrashing received by Sajan while fixing his punishment.

Correct Answer: 2) Thrashing given by the people does not amount to legal punishment and so Sajan can be punished by the State.



Q. No. : 16 - Legal Principle: The Latin maxim qui facit per alium, facit per se means that he who acts through another, acts himself.

Fact Situation: Heema requests her minor sister Harika to purchase a bag for her from the local shop. Harika purchases the bag on credit telling the shop keeper that her sister will pay for it. Afterwards, Heema refuses to pay for the bag.

Which of the following statements is the most appropriate in relation to the legal principle stated above?

Options:

1) Since Heema has not purchased the bag herself she is not liable to pay for it.

2) Harika being a minor the shop keeper should not have sold the bag to her.

3) Since she purchased the bag through her sister, Heema is liable to pay for it.

4) Harika being a minor should not have been entrusted by Heema for the purchase of the bag.

Correct Answer: 3) Since she purchased the bag through her sister, Heema is liable to pay for it.



Q. No. : 17 - Legal Principle: Negligence is the absence of care by one party which results in some damage to another. Damage is an essential ingredient to constitute a tort of negligence.

Fact Situation: Mistry left his ladder on the public road while unloading it from a truck when he went to open the shutters of his shop. Saini who was riding his motorcycle had to swerve hard to avoid hitting the ladder as he came with speed on the road. Saini fell down but was miraculously not injured.

Which of the following statements is the most appropriate in relation to the legal principle stated above?

Options:

1) Mistry is not liable for the tort of negligence since Saini was not injured though he fell down.

2) Mistry is liable for the tort of negligence since Saini fell down due to the presence of the ladder.

3) Mistry is not liable for the tort of negligence since Saini was speeding on the road.

4) Mistry is liable for the tort of negligence since he was careless in leaving the ladder on the road.

Correct Answer: 2) Mistry is liable for the tort of negligence since Saini fell down due to the presence of the ladder.



Q. No. : 18 - Legal Principle: Every partner is liable alone and jointly with other partners for the debts of a partnership firm incurred for the business. Every partner is an agent of every other partner while being a principal in his own right in the business of the partnership.

Fact Situation: Varun is a partner in a firm with Chinmoy and Jaffar. Jaffar purchases a car for his personal purpose and obtains credit for the same in the name of the partnership behind the back of the other partners. He fails to pay the due amount on the expiry of the period of credit.

Which of the following statements is the most appropriate in relation to the legal principle stated above?

Options:

1) Varun, Chinmoy and Jaffar are liable to pay for the car since they are partners and the credit was obtained in the name of the firm.

2) Varun and Chinmoy are not liab le to pay for the car since Jaffar purchased it for his personal purpose.

3) Varun, Chinmoy and Jaffar are liable as partners for all credit obtained in the name of the firm even if it is for the personal purpose of a partner.

4) Jaffar can use the credit of the firm to make purchases even for personal purposes since he is a partner in the partnership.

Correct Answer: 2) Varun and Chinmoy are not liable to pay for the car since Jaffar purchased it for his personal purpose.



Q. No. : 19 - Legal Principle: Parents are not liable for wrongs committed by their children unless they provide the opportunity for such wrongful acts to be committed by their children.

Fact Situation: Sunil, a minor, takes the keys to his father’s car from the table top where his father keeps it, drives the car on the public road and hits a pedestrian who gets injured.

Which of the following statements is the most appropriate in relation to the legal principle stated above?

Options:

1) Since Sunil took the car without his father’s permission, his father is not liable for Sunil’s act resulting in the accident.

2) Sunil’s father is liable for the conduct of Sunil resulting in the accident since he left the car keys where his son could easily take it without permission.

3) Accidents happen despite utmost care and hence neither Sunil nor his father is liable in the instant case.

4) Sunil’s father is not liable since he had kept his car locked and securely deposited its keys without negligence on his table top.

Correct Answer: 2) Sunil’s father is liable for the conduct of Sunil resulting in the accident since he left the car keys where his son could easily take it without permission.



Q. No. : 20 - Legal Principle: No remedy lies in law where an injury is caused to a person without any infringement of his legal right.

Fact Situation: Ashutosh started a tuition Centre right next to the one being run for the past twenty years by Gulshan. After Ashutosh started his Centre, a large number of students shifted from Gulshan’s tuition Centre to Ashutosh’s Centre forcing Gulshan to close down his establishment suffering huge losses. Can Gulshan initiate legal action against Ashutosh?

Which of the following statements is the most appropriate in relation to the legal principle stated above?

Options:

1) Ashutosh must compensate Gulshan for his loss consequent to the start of the new tuition centre.

2) Gulshan cannot blame Ashutosh if he cannot retain his students.

3) Ashutosh has not violated any legal right of Gulshan, though stud ents shifted to Ashutosh’s Centre and though Gulshan suffered loss, after he shut down his tuition Centre.

4) Gulshan should have improved his quality with lower fees to retain his students in the light of competition brought in by Ashutosh.

Correct Answer: 3) Ashutosh has not violated any legal right of Gulshan, though students shifted to Ashutosh’s Centre and though Gulshan suffered loss, after he shut down his tuition Centre.



Q. No. : 21 - Legal Principle: Article 20(3) of the Constitution of India states that no person accused of any offence shall be compelled to be a witness against himself.

Fact Situation: Ubaid refuses to give a sample of his blood after he is stopped by the police for driving over the speed limit. The police suspect him to be driving under the influence of alcohol, which is prohibited under the law.

Which of the following statements is the most appropriate in relation to the legal principle stated above?

Options:

1) Ubaid is protected by Article 20(3) in his refusal to give a blood sample.

2) Ubaid is not protected by Article 20(3) as he was under the influence of a lcohol.

3) Ubaid is not protected by Article 20(3) in his refusal to give a blood sample since he is not accused of any offence yet.

4) Refusal to give a blood sample is a crime and Ubaid must be punished for the same.

Correct Answer: 3) Ubaid is not protected by Article 20(3) in his refusal to give a blood sample since he is not accused of any offence yet.



Q. No. : 172 - The law which provides special powers to the Armed Forces in India is popularly known as:

Options:

1) AFSPA

2) POTA

3) TADA

4) SARFA ESI

Correct Answer: 1) AFSPA



Q. No. : 173 - Legal Principle: The law states that a food business operator must be registered with or licensed by the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) to run a food business.

Fact Situation: Kavita’s neighbours suffer food poisoning after consuming sweets gifted by her on the occasion of a celebration at her home. Kavita does not have a registration or license from the FSSAI.

Which of the following statements is the most appropriate in relation to the legal principle stated above?

Options:

1) Kavita is in violation of the law since she does not have a FSSAI registration or license.

2) Kavita is not in violation of the law since she did not make the sweets she gave by way o f gift.

3) Law does not apply in cases like this where transactions happen between neighbours.

4) Kavita need not take a license or register with FSSAI since she is not running a food business.

Correct Answer: 4) Kavita need not take a license or register with FSSAI since she is not running a food business.



Q. No. : 24 - Legal Principle: An agreement entered into by way of a wager/bet is unenforceable in law.

Fact Situation: Thomas is very good at predicting outcomes of cricket matches. Raja and Hoja give him rupees thousand each to enable him to bet with others about the outcome of a cricket match. Thomas wins rupees three lakh after betting three thousand rupees.

Which of the following statements is the most appropriate in relation to the legal principle stated above?

Options:

1) Thomas must share rupees three lakh with Raja and Hoja equally.

2) Thomas must return rupees thousand each to Raja and Hoja.

3) Thomas need not share the three lakh with Raja and Hoja sinc e it is the outcome of an unenforceable agreement.

4) If Thomas does not pay them rupees two lakh each, Raja and Hoja can sue him to recover their share.

Correct Answer: 3) Thomas need not share the three lakh with Raja and Hoja since it is the outcome of an unenforceable agreement.



Q. No. : 25 - Legal Principle: ‘ Audi alteram partem’ is a Latin phrase which means ‘hear the other side’. It is the principle that no person should be judged without a fair hearing.

Fact Situation: Sanjay, in Delhi, is accused of theft and brought before the Court. The magistrate discovers that Sanjay is mute.

Which of the following statements is the most appropriate in relation to the legal principle stated above?

Options:

1) The principle is not applicable to Sanjay since he is mute.

2) The principle is applicable to Sanjay even though he canno t speak since he can be asked to write down his defence.

3) The Magistrate has to take all measures to understand what Sanjay has to convey about the accusation against him.

4) Since it is a Latin principle it is not applicable in India.

Correct Answer: 3) The Magistrate has to take all measures to understand what Sanjay has to convey about the accusation against him.



Q. No. : 26 - Legal Principle: An essential condition in a contract for sale of goods is that the seller has title over the goods sold.

Fact Situation: Ranjan pays rupees two thousand and buys a watch from Mohit who runs a watch showroom and a repair shop. Jatin sees the watch with Ranjan and tells him that it is his watch and was only given to Mohit for repairs. If what Jatin says is true

Which of the following statements is the most appropriate in relation to the legal principle stated above?

Options:

1) Ranjan is now the owner of the watch since he paid rupees two thousand for it.

2) Ranjan is not the owner of the watch since Mohit did not have a title to it.

3) Mohit must pay Jatin rupees two thousand since he sold Jatin’s watch.

4) Mohit is the owner of the watch since he sold it to Ranjan.

Correct Answer: 2) Ranjan is not the owner of the watch since Mohit did not have a title to it.



Q. No. : 27 - Legal Principle: The insurer agrees to pay no more than the actual amount of the loss.

Fact Situation: Sunny insures his car worth rupees five lakh with X, an insurance company, for its value. He again insures the same car with Y, another insurance company, on the same terms. There is an accident and the car suffers a total loss. In his separate suits against X and Y, if Sunny recovers rupees five lakh from X, how much can he recover from Y?

Which of the following statements is the most appropriate in relation to the legal principle stated above?

Options:

1) Sunny can recover rupees five lakhs from Y.

2) Sunny cannot recover any amount from Y.

3) Sunny must pay Y, the rupees five lakhs he received from X.

4) Sunny cannot insure his car with both X and Y at the same tim e.

Correct Answer: 2) Sunny cannot recover any amount from Y.

Q. No. : 28 - Legal Principle: When there is an infringement of the legal right of a person, he gets a right to sue the wrongdoer for remedy irrespective of any actual loss caused.

Fact Situation: Saroj is prevented from voting at an election. The candidate she intended to vote for, wins the election.

Which of the following statements is the most appropriate in relation to the legal principle stated above?

Options:

1) Saroj’s legal right has been violated and she can sue the persons who prevented her from voting

2) Since Saroj‘s candidate has won the election, her rights are not violated and she cannot sue.

3) Since Saroj is not the candidate, her rights are not violated if she is prevented from voting.

4) This principle is not at all applicable in this case.

Correct Answer: 1) Saroj’s legal right has been violated and she can sue the persons who prevented her from voting



Q. No. : 179 - Which of the following is the oldest law code in India?

Options:

1) Hammurabi’s code

2) Prasarsmriti

3) Manusmriti

4) Naradasmrit i

Correct Answer: 3) Manusmriti



Q. No. : 30 - Legal Principle: A product cannot be sold in shops to consumers after its date of expiry.

Fact Situation: Lata, while shopping, notices that the milk packets on the shelves are due for expiry on that day. She objects to this to the shopkeeper, saying that since she was there to buy milk for the next day, keeping the milk on its date of expiry was against the law.

Which of the following statements is the most appropriate in relation to the legal principle stated above?

Options:

1) Lata is right and the shopkeeper should take the milk packets off his shelves.

2) The shopkeeper should not sell the milk packets after the date of expiry is over.

3) The shopkeeper must remove the milk packets from the shelves and keep it refrigerated.

4) Milk is not a product and hence the principle is not applicable in this case.

Correct Answer: 2) The shopkeeper should not sell the milk packets after the date of expiry is over.



Q. No. : 31 - Legal Principle: Nuisance is the unlawful interference with a person’s enjoyment of his land or some rights over or in connection with it.

Fact Situation: Ashok, in his nineties, is hard of hearing and plays the radio very loudly throughout the day and on a daily basis. Raju, his neighbour, complaints that he cannot listen to his favorite TV show in his home due to the radio of Ashok.

Which of the following statements is the most appropriate in relation to the legal principle stated above?

Options:

1) Listening to the radio is Ashok’s freedom.

2) Ashok is creating nuisance to his neighbou r by playing the radio loud perpetually and disturbing Raju in being able to listen to the TV in his home.

3) Raju is creating nuisance by complaining about Ashok’s enjoyment of hearing his radio.

4) Raju should appreciate that Ashok is aged and hard of hearing.

Correct Answer: 2) Ashok is creating nuisance to his neighbour by playing the radio loud perpetually and disturbing Raju in being able to listen to the TV in his home.



Q. No. : 32 - Legal Principle: Agreements in restraint of trade are void and unenforceable.

Fact Situation: Manu has been working as a blacksmith in his village for many decades. Somu has been undergoing training with him for the past three years. After his training is over, Somu enters into an agreement with Manu that he will not start a competing business in the same village while Manu is alive.

Which of the following statements is the most appropriate in relation to the legal principle stated above?

Options:

1) This agreement is void and unenforceable since it is a restraint on trade.

2) This agreement is valid and enforceable since Manu is Somu’s teacher.

3) This agreement is valid but not enforceable after Manu’s death.

4) This agreement is valid and enforceable since it is to protect Ma nu’s interest in consideration for teaching Somu to be a blacksmith.

Correct Answer: 1) This agreement is void and unenforceable since it is a restraint on trade.



Q. No. : 33 - What does FIR stand for under the Criminal Law?

Options:

1) Forensic Investigation Report

2) First Investigation Report

3) First Information Report

4) Formal Interrogation Record

Correct Answer: 3) First Information Report



Q. No. : 34 - Under which of the following enactments, is the use of mobile phone while driving made punishable?

Options:

1) The Information Technology Act

2) The Indian Penal Code

3) The Motor Vehicles Act

4) The Criminal Procedure Code

Correct Answer: 3) The Motor Vehicles Act



Q. No. : 35 - Legal Principle: A person is liable to compensate others for harm caused by the escape of any inherently dangerous material that he keeps on his land.

Fact Situation: Ankit lights a bonfire in his courtyard to warm himself up during a cold winter evening. A strong wind suddenly blows some sparks from the fire, on to his neighbour’s house which catches fire and gets completely destroyed.

Which of the following statements is the most appropriate in relation to the legal principle stated above?

Options:

1) Ankit’s neighbour is liable to Ankit for distress caused by keeping a house that catches fire so quickly.

2) Ankit is not liable because nobody could foresee that the sudden wind will blow the sparks to cause a fire.

3) An kit’s neighbour cannot make Ankit liable for the loss of his house since it was an accidental fire that destroyed it.

4) Ankit is liable to compensate because the fire escaped from his premises to burn down his neighbour’s house.

Correct Answer: 4) Ankit is liable to compensate because the fire escaped from his premises to burn down his neighbour’s house.



Q. No. : 36 - Legal Principle: A characteristic feature of partnerships is the principle of mutual agency, i.e., every partner is an agent for every other partner and will hence be able to bind them by his act, within the business of partnership.

Fact Situation : Ram and Shyam are partners of M/s R & S Trading Company which trades in rice varieties. Ram agrees to purchase ten tons of rice from Govind. Ram dies after the rice is delivered to the premises of M/s R & S Trading Company but before the payment of price is made. Is the agreement binding on Shyam?

Which of the following statements is the most appropriate in relation to the legal principle stated above?

Options:

1) Being partners, Ram’s agreement to purchase rice for their partnership, is not binding on Shyam.

2) Since Ram is no more, the agreement is not binding on Shyam.

3) Being partners, Ram’s agreement to purchase rice for their partn ership, is binding on Shyam.

4) The agreement is binding on Ram and not on Shyam since the rice is delivered only to M/s R & S Trading Company and not to Shyam.

Correct Answer: 3) Being partners, Ram’s agreement to purchase rice for their partnership, is binding on Shyam.



Q. No. : 37 - Who is an Ombudsman?

Options:

1) A judicial officer designated to receive complaints against the violation of rights of citizens.

2) An official who is charged with representing the interests of the public by investigating and addressing complaints of maladministration or a violation of rights.

3) An elected representative of the people to investigate and address the complaints of maladministration or a violation of rights.

4) A specially designate d police officer assigned with the power to investigate and address the complaints of maladministration or a violation of rights.

Correct Answer: 2) An official who is charged with representing the interests of the public by investigating and addressing complaints of maladministration or a violation of rights.



Q. No. : 38 - Which authority in India notified the guidelines for the protection of persons assisting accident victims on Indian roads based on the Supreme Court direction?

Options:

1) Ministry of Surface Transport, Govt. of India

2) Ministry of Social Justice, Govt. of India

3) Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, Govt. of India

4) National Human Rights Commission

Correct Answer: 3) Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, Govt. of India



Q. No. : 39 - Article 1 of a legal instrument reads: “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood”.

Which is the legal instrument being referred to above?

Options:

1) National Human Rights Act, 1995

2) Constitution of India, 1951

3) Universal Declaration of Hu man Rights, 1948

4) Philadelphia Declaration, 1944

Correct Answer: 3) Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948



Q. No. : 40 - Examine the Statement and Conclusions given below and choose a suitable answer from the options given:

Statement: It is a fundamental duty, which is unenforceable in a Court of Law that every citizen shall renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women.

Conclusions:

1. Reservation of seats for women in employment is violative of the principle stated.

2. Asking a lady inappropriate questions about her personal life is violative of the principle stated.

Options:

1) Only Conclusion 1 follows.

2) Only Conclusion 2 follows.

3) Conclusions 1 and 2 follow.

4) Neither Conclusion 1 nor 2 follows.

Correct Answer: 2) Only Conclusion 2 follows.



Q. No. : 41 - Examine the Statement and Conclusions given below and choose a suitable answer from the options given:

Statement: A punishment is the imposition of an undesirable or unpleasant outcome upon a group or individual, meted out by an authority.

Conclusions:

1. Eye for an eye and tooth for a tooth is an example of punishment. 2. Imposition of fine on someone who inflicted bodily injury on another is justified by the statement.

Options:

1) Only Conclusion 1 follows.

2) Only Conclusion 2 follows.

3) Conclusions 1 and 2 follow.

4) Neither Conclusion 1 nor 2 follows.

Correct Answer: 3) Conclusions 1 and 2 follow.



Q. No. : 42 - Examine the Statement and Conclusions given below and choose a suitable answer from the options given:

Statement: Necessity knows no law.

Conclusions:

1. The act of a captain throwing some cargo into the ocean to save the ship from sinking is justified by the principle.

2. The act of a man out of poverty and starvation stealing some food from a hotel is justified by the principle.

3. The act of a tourist killing a tiger when it was attacking a villager is justified by the principle.

Options:

1) Only Conclusion 1 follows.

2) Only Conclusion 2 follows.

3) Only Conclusion 1 and 3 follow.

4) All Conclusions follow.

Correct Answer: 3) Only Conclusion 1 and 3 follow.



Q. No. : 43 - Examine the Statement and Conclusions given below and choose a suitable answer from the options given:

Statements:

1. Justice delayed is justice denied. Justice hurried is justice buried.

2. More than 3crore cases are pending in the Indian Courts.

Conclusions:

1. People are not getting justice in India.

2. Disposal of cases by ‘Fast track courts ’ results in injustice.

3. Cases must be disposed off within a reasonable time.

Options:

1) Only Conclusion 1 follows.

2) Only Conclusion 2 follows.

3) Only Conclusion 3 follows.

4) No Conclusion follows.

Correct Answer: 3) Only Conclusion 3 follows.



Q. No. : 44 - Legal Principle: One of the principles of ‘Natural Justice’ states that, “No person shall be a judge in his own cause”.

Facts: A, a driver of B, a Branch Manager of ABC Bank was caught, suspecting theft, in the bank premises. The Bank management instituted an enquiry and made B the enquiry officer.

Which of the following statements is correct?

Options:

1) As B is a Bank Manager and not a judge, this principle is inapplicable.

2) Since the suspected theft was in the bank premises, the manager is the only competent person to enquire. Hence, the principle is not applicable.

3) Since B is the employer of A, B should not be conducting the enquiry on the basis of the given principle.

4) The principle will be applicable, only if the theft committed by A was in relation to the car.

Correct Answer: 3) Since B is the employer of A, B should not be conducting the enquiry on the basis of the given principle.

Q. No. : 45 - Legal Principle: Justice should not only be done, but also seen to be done.

Facts: L, an honest Lawyer had 200 shares in Company X. Later, L was elevated to the High Court as a Judge and had to deal with Company matters. A dispute between Company X and its creditors came before L for decision.

Which among the following proposition is true?

Options:

1) L, as an honest person will definitely judge the matter on the merits only. So, the principle cannot apply.

2) A judge cannot excuse himself from taking up a case posted before him by the Court Registry.

3) L should refrain from hearing the matter as he holds shares of the Company X.

4) Since, L has only 200 shares he has no substantial interest in the company and hence can decide the matter.

Correct Answer: 3) L should refrain from hearing the matter as he holds shares of the Company X.



Q. No. : 46 - Legal Principle: A person who keeps hazardous substances in his premises, is responsible for the fault if that substance escapes in any manner and causes damage.

Facts: A, an industrialist stored 1000litres of liquid ammonia in a tank in his premises for his industrial use. There was a leakage from the tank due to which there was ammonia vapour in the surroundings. Many workers in other industries as well as his own industry and some members from the public suffered serious health hazards. Examine the liability of A, if any.

Options:

1) A may be liable for the injury sustained by his workers only and not others.

2) A is liable as he is responsible for the injury caused by the leakage of ammo nia from his premises.

3) A is not liable because there was no fault on his part for the escape of the dangerous substance.

4) A is not liable because he did not expect a leakage from the tank.

Correct Answer: 2) A is liable as he is responsible for the injury caused by the leakage of ammonia from his premises.



Q. No. : 47 - Legal Principle: In the law of evidence, a person missing for long and not heard of, for over seven years is presumed to have died.

Facts: A, B and C are children of F and M. At the age of 20, A went out in search of a job and was not contacting the family. All attempts to trace A by the family failed. Eight years after the death of the parents, B and C entered into a partition and took equal share in the property of F and M. One year after this, A returned home with his wife and two children and claimed his share in the property. Whether A’s claim is legally sustainable?

Options:

1) Since A was not heard of, for more than eight years, the legal presumption of death will apply and hence, he cannot claim a share in the property.

2) It was A’s duty to be in touch with the family a t least once in a year. The failure of this duty will disentitle him from claiming property.

3) A will succeed because he is a legitimate son of F and M.

4) B and C are legally bound to give 1/3 share of the proper ty to A.

Correct Answer: 1) Since A was not heard of, for more than eight years, the legal presumption of death will apply and hence, he cannot claim a share in the property.



Q. No. : 48 - Legal Principle: ‘Gift' means transfer of certain existing property made voluntarily and without consideration, by a donor, to a donee, and accepted by or on behalf of the donee during the lifetime of the donor.

Facts: Amit executed a gift deed for property ‘X’ in favour of Sooraj, who happened to be Amit’s loyal servant’s son settled in the U.S. Two months thereafter, Amit died without leaving a will regarding his assets. Amit’s children initiated steps to partition his entire property, including property ‘X’ among themselves. At that time, Sooraj came to India, and learning about the gift, claimed the property ‘X’.

Options:

1) Sooraj can legally get the property ‘X’, as soon as he gets to know about the gift.

2) Sooraj cannot legally claim the property ‘X’ because, the children of Amit have alr eady initiated steps for partition.

3) Sooraj can claim the property ‘X’, because, his acceptance of the gift is implicit by his conduct of claiming the property as soon as he came to know about the gift.

4) Sooraj apparently did not comply with the essential requiremen ts of a gift and hence, the entire property including property 'X', can be partitioned among the children of Amit.

Correct Answer: 4) Sooraj apparently did not comply with the essential requirements of a gift and hence, the entire property including property 'X', can be partitioned among the children of Amit.



Q. No. : 49 - The right to information under the Right to Information Act, 2005 is a:

Options:

1) Legal Right

2) Fundamental Right

3) Human Right

4) Constitutional Right

Correct Answer: 1) Legal Right



Q. No. : 50 - The primary legislation relating to organ donation and transplantation, aimed at regulation of removal, storage and transplantation of human organs for therapeutic purposes and for prevention of commercial dealings in human organs in India, namely, the Transplantation of Human Organs Act, was passed in the year

Options:

1) 1994

2) 1998

3) 2004

4) 2014

Correct Answer: 1) 1994



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