A Legal Maxim is an established
principle or proposition. The Latin term, apparently a variant on maxima, is
not to be found in Roman law with any meaning exactly analogous to that of a
legal maxim in the Medieval or modern sense of the word, but the treatises of
many of the Roman jurists on Regular definitions, and Sententiae juris are, in some
measure, collections of maxims. Most of the Latin maxims developed in the
Medieval era in European countries that used Latin as their language for law
It would be impossible to learn all
maxims in Latin, where the trick is to learn common words those of which repeat
themselves and further trying to understand the root of the word.
A list of legal maxims is as provided:
1. A mensa et thoro - From bed and board.
2. A vinculo matrimonii - From the bond of matrimony.
3. Ab extra - From outside.
4. Ab initio - From the beginning.
5. Absoluta sententia expositore non indiget - An absolute
judgment needs no expositor.
6. Abundans cautela non nocet - Abundant caution does no harm.
7. Accessorium non ducit sed sequitur suum principale - An
accessory does not draw, but follows its principal.
8. Accessorius sequitur - One who is an accessory to the crime
cannot be guilty of a more serious crime than the principal offender.
9. Acta exteriora iudicant interiora secreta - Outward acts
indicate the inward intent.
Actio non accrevit infra
sex annos - The action has not accrued within six years.
Actio non datur non
damnificato - An action is not given to one who is not injured.
Actio personalis moritur
cum persona - A personal action dies with the person.
Actiones legis - Law
Actori incumbit onus
probandi - The burden of proof lies on the plaintiff.
Actus nemini facit
injuriam - The act of the law does no one wrong.
Actus non facit reum nisi
mens sit rea - The act does not make one guilty unless there be a criminal
Actus reus - A guilty deed
Ad ea quae frequentius
acciduunt jura adaptantur - The laws are adapted to those cases which occur
Ad hoc - For this purpose.
Ad infinitum - Forever,
without limit, to infinity.
Ad perpetuam rei memoriam
- For a perpetual memorial of the matter.
Ad quaestionem facti non
respondent judices; ad quaestionem legis non respondent juratores - The judges
do not answer to a question of fact; the jury do not answer to a question of
Aedificare in tuo proprio
solo non licet quod alteri noceat - It is not lawful to build on one's own land
what may be injurious to another.
Aequitas legem sequitur -
Equity follows the law.
contravenit legem - Equity never contradicts the law.
Alibi - At another place,
Alienatio rei praefertur
juri accrescendi - Alienation is preferred by law rather than accumulation.
Aliunde - From elsewhere,
or, from a different source
Allegans contraria non est
audiendus - One making contradictory statements is not to be heard.
Allegans suam turpitudinem
non est audiendus - One alleging his own infamy is not to be heard.
Allegatio contra factum
non est admittenda - An allegation contrary to a deed is not to be heard.
stipulatorem est - An ambiguity is most strongly construed against the party
Ambiguitas verborum patens
nulla verificatione excluditur - A patent ambiguity is never helped by
Amicus curiae - A friend
of the Court.
Angliae jura in omni casu
libertati dant favorem - The laws of England are favorable in every case to
Animo furandi - With an
intention of stealing.
Animo testandi - With an
intention of making a will.
Annus luctus - The year of
Ante - Before.
Aqua currit et debet
currere, ut currere solebat - Water runs and ought to run.
Arbitrium est judicium -
An award is a judgment.
Arbor dum crescit; lignum
cum crescere nescit - A tree while it grows, wood when it cannot grow.
Argumentum ab auctoritate
fortissimum est in lege - An argument drawn from authority is the strongest in
Argumentum ab impossibilii
plurimum valet in lege - An argument from impossibility is very strong in law.
Argumentum ad hominem - An
argument directed a the person.
Argumentum ad ignoratiam -
An argument based upon ignorance (i.e. of one's adversary).
Arma in armatos sumere
jura sinunt - The laws permit the taking up of arms against the armed.
Assentio mentium - The
meeting of minds, i.e. mutual assent.
Assignatus utitur jure
auctoris - An assignee is clothed with rights of his assignor.
Audi alteram partem - Hear
the other side.
Aula regis - The King's
Benignior sententia in
verbis generalibus seu dubiis est preferenda - The more favorable construction
is to be placed on general or doubtful words.
Bis dat qui cito dat - He
gives (pays) twice who pays promptly.
Bona fide - Sincere, in
Bona vacantia - Goods
without an owner
Boni judicis est ampliare
jurisdictionem - It is the part of a good judge to enlarge his jurisdiction,
i.e. remedial authority.
Boni judicis est judicium
sine dilatione mandare executioni - It is the duty of a good judge to cause
execution to issue on a judgment without delay.
Boni judicis lites
dirimere est - It is the duty of a good judge to prevent litigation.
Bonus judex secundum
aequum et bonum judicat et aequitatem stricto juri praefert - A good judge
decides according to justice and right and prefers equity to strict law.
Breve judiciale non cadit
pro defectu formae - A judicial writing does not fail through defect of form.
Cadit quaestio - The
matter admits of no further argument.
Cassetur billa (breve) -
Let the writ be quashed.
Casus fortuitus non est
spectandus; et nemo tenetur divinare - A fortuitous event is not to be foreseen
and no person is bound to divine it.
Catalla reputantur inter
minima in lege - Chattels are considered in law among the minor things.
Causa proxima, non remota
spectatur - The immediate, and not the remote cause is to be considered.
Caveat emptor - Let the
Caveat venditor - Let the
Cepi corpus et est
languidum - I have taken the body and the prisoner is sick.
Cepi corpus et paratum
habeo - I have taken the body and have it ready.
Ceteris paribus - Other
things being equal.
Consensu - Unanimously or,
by general consent.
Consensus ad idem -
Agreement as to the same things.
Consuetudo loci observanda
est - The custom of the place is to be observed.
est optima et fortissima in lege - A contemporaneous exposition is best and
most powerful in law.
Contra - To the contrary.
Contra bonos mores -
Against good morals.
Contra non valentem agere
nulla currit praescriptio - No prescription runs against a person not able to
Contractus est quasi actus
contra actum - A contract is an act as it were against an act.
Conventio et modus vincunt
legem - A contract and agreement overcome the law.
Conventio privatorum non
potest publico juri derogare - An agreement of private persons cannot derogate
from public right.
Coram Domino Rege - In the
presence of our Lord the King.
Coram non judice - Before
one who is not a judge.
Corpus - Body.
Corpus delicti - The body,
i.e. the gist of crime.
Corpus humanum non recipit
aestimationem - A human body is not susceptible of appraisement.
Crescente malitia crescere
debet et poena - Vice increasing, punishment ought also to increase.
Crimen omnia ex se nata
vitiat - Crime vitiates every thing, which springs from it.
Crimen trahit personam -
The crime carries the person.
Cujus est dare, ejus est
disponere - He who has a right to give has the right to dispose of the gift.
Cujus est solum, ejus est
usque ad coelam; et ad inferos - He who owns the soil owns it up to the sky;
and to its depth.
Cum duo inter se pugnantia
reperiuntur in testamentis ultimum ratum est - When two things repugnant to
each other are found in a will, the last is to be confirmed.
Cursus curiae est lex
curiae - The practice of the court is the law of the court.
Custos morum - A guardian
Damnum sine injuria -
damage without legal injury.
De bonis asportatis - Of
goods carried away.
De bonis non administratis
- Of goods not administered.
De die in diem - From day
De facto - In fact.
De futuro - In the future.
100. De integro - As regards the whole.
101. De jure - Rightful, by right.
102. De minimis lex non curat - The law does not notice trifling
103. De novo - Starting afresh.
104. Debile fundamentum fallit opus - Where there is a weak foundation,
the work fails.
105. Debita sequuntur personam debitoria - Debts follow the person of
106. Debitor non praesumitur donare - A debtor is not presumed to make
107. Debitum et contractus sunt nullius loci - Debt and contract are of
no particular place.
108. Debitum in praesenti, solvendum in futuro - A present debt is to
be discharged in the future.
109. Delegata potestas non potest delegari - A delegated authority
cannot be again delegated.
110. Derivativa potestas non potest esse major primitiva - The power
which is derived cannot be greater than that from which it is derived.
111. Deus solus haeredem facere potest, non homo - God alone, not man,
can make an heir.
112. Dies Dominicus non est juridicus - Sunday is not a day in law.
113. Discretio est discernere per legem quid sit justum - Discretion is
to discern through law what is just.
114. Doli incapax - Incapable of crime.
115. Dominium - Ownership.
116. Domus sua cuique est tutissimum refugium - Every man s house is
his safest refuge.
117. Dona clandestina sunt semper suspiciosa - Clandestine gifts are
118. Dormiunt leges aliquando, nunquam moriuntur - The laws sometimes
sleep, but never die.
119. Doti lex favet; praemium pudoris est; ideo parcatur - The law
favors dower; it is the reward of chastity, therefore let it be preserved.
120. Dubitante - Doubting the correctness of the decision.
121. Duo non possunt in solido unam rem possidere - Two cannot possess
one thing each in entirety.
122. Ei incumbit probatio qui - The onus of proving a fact rests upon
123. Ei incumbit probatio qui dicit, non qui negat - The burden of the
proof lies upon him who affirms, not he who denies.
124. Error, qui non resistitur approbatur - An error not resisted is
125. Et cetera - Other things of that type.
126. Ex cathedra - With official authority.
127. Ex concessis - In view of what has already been accepted/
128. Ex dolo malo actio non oritur - A right of action cannot arise out
129. Ex facie - On the fact of it.
130. Ex gratia - Out of kindness, voluntary.
131. Ex nihilo nil fit - From nothing nothing comes.
132. Ex nudo pacto actio non oritur - No action arises on a contract
without a consideration.
133. Ex parte - Proceeding brought by one person in the absence of
134. Ex post facto - By reason of a subsequent act.
135. Ex praecedentibus et consequentibus optima fit interpretatio - The
best interpretation is made from things preceding and following.
136. Ex turpi causa non oritur actio - No action arises on an immoral
137. Exceptio probat regulam - An exception proves the rule.
138. Executio est executio juris secundum judicium - Execution is the
fulfillment of the law in accordance with the judgment.
139. Executio est finis et fructus legis - An execution is the end and
the fruit of the law.
140. Executio legis non habet injuriam - Execution of the law does no
141. Extra legem positus est civiliter mortuus - One out of the pale of
the law (i.e. an outlaw) is civilly dead.
142. Faciendum - Something which is to be done.
143. Factum - An act or deed.
144. Facultas probationum non est angustanda - The right of offering
proof is not to be narrowed.
145. Falsa demonstratio non nocet - A false description does not
146. Fatetur facinus qui judicium fugit - He who flees judgment
confesses his guilt.
147. Felix qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas - Happy is he who has
been able to understand the causes of things.
148. Felonia implicatur in qualibet proditione - Felony is implied in
149. Festinatio justitiae est noverca infortunii - The hurrying of
justice is the stepmother of misfortune.
150. Fictio cedit veritati; fictio juris non est, ubi veritas - Fiction
yields to truth. Where truth is, fiction of law does not exist.
151. Fides servanda est - Good faith is to be preserved.
152. Fieri facias (abreviated fi. fa.) - That you cause to be made.
153. Filiatio non potest probari - Filiation cannot be proved.
154. Firmior et potentior est operatio legis quam dispositio hominis -
The operation of law is firmer and more powerful than the will of man.
155. Forma legalis forma essentialis est - Legal form is essential
156. Fortior est custodia legis quam hominis - The custody of the law
is stronger than that of man.
157. Fractionem diei non recipit lex - The law does not regard a
fraction of a day.
158. Fraus est celare fraudem - It is a fraud to conceal a fraud.
159. Fraus est odiosa et non praesumenda - Fraud is odious and is not
to be presumed.
160. Fraus et jus nunquam cohabitant - Fraud and justice never dwell
161. Fructus naturales - Vegetation which grows naturally without
162. Frustra probatur quod probatum non relevat - That is proved in
vain which when proved is not relevant.
163. Furor contrahi matrimonium non sinit, quia consensus opus est -
Insanity prevents marriage from being contracted because consent is needed.
164. Generale nihil certum implicat - A general expression implies
165. Generalia praecedunt, specialia sequuntur - Things general
precede, things special follow.
166. Generalia specialibus non derogant - Things general do not
derogate from things special.
167. Generalis regula generaliter est intelligenda - A general rule is
to be generally understood.
168. Gravius est divinam quam temporalem laedere majestatem - It is
more serious to hurt divine than temporal majesty.
169. Id est (i.e) - That is.
170. Id quod commune est, nostrum esse dicitur - That which is common
is said to be ours.
171. Idem - The same person or thing.
172. Idem nihil dicere et insufficienter dicere est - It is the same to
say nothing as not to say enough.
173. Ignorantia facti excusat, ignorantia juris non excusat - Ignorance
of fact excuses, ignorance of law does not excuse.
174. Imperium in imperio - A sovereignty within a sovereignty.
175. Impotentia excusat legem - Impossibility is an excuse in the law.
176. Impunitas semper ad deteriora invitat - Impunity always leads to
177. In aequali jure melior est conditio possidentis - When the parties
have equal rights, the condition of the possessor is better.
178. In alta proditione nullus potest esse acessorius; sed principalis
solum modo - In high treason no one can be an accessory; but a principal only.
179. In Anglia non est interregnum - In England there is no
180. In camera - In private.
181. In casu extremae necessitatis omnia sunt communia - In a case of
extreme necessity everything is common.
182. In criminalibus probationes debent esse luce clariores - In
criminal cases the proofs ought to be cleared than the light.
183. In curia domini regis, ipse in propria persona jura discernit - In
the King s Court, the King himself in his own person dispenses justice.
184. In delicto - At fault.
185. In esse - In existence.
186. In extenso - At full length.
187. In fictione legis aequitas existit - A legal fiction is consistent
188. In foro conscientiae - In the forum of conscience.
189. In futoro - In the future.
190. In jure non remota causa sed proxima spectatur - In law not the
remote but the proximate cause is looked at.
191. In limine - At the outset, on the threshold.
192. In loco parentis - In place of the parent.
193. In mortua manu - In a dead hand.
194. In novo casu novum remedium apponendum est - In a new case a new
remedy is to be applied.
195. In omni re nascitur res quae ipsam rem exterminat - In everything
is born that which destroys the thing itself.
196. In omnibus - In every respect.
197. In pari delicto potior est conditio possidentis - When the parties
are equally in the wrong the condition of the possessor is better.
198. In personam - Against the person.
199. In pleno - In full.
200. In quo quis delinquit in eo de jure est puniendus - In whatever
thing one offends in that he is to be punished according to law.
201. In re dubia magis inficiatio quam affirmatio intelligenda - In a
doubtful matter the negative is to be understood rather than the affirmative.
202. In republica maxime conservanda sunt jura belli - In a State the
laws of war are to be especially observed.
203. In situ - In its place.
204. In terrorem - As a warning or deterrent.
205. In testamentis plenius testatoris intentionem scrutamur - In wills
we seek diligently the intention of the testator.
206. In traditionibus scriptorum non quod dictum est, sed quod gestum
est, inspicitur - In the delivery of writings (deeds), not what is said but
what is done is to be considered.
207. In verbis, non verba sed res et ratio quaerenda est - In words,
not words, but the thing and the meaning are to be inquired into.
208. Indicia - Marks, signs.
209. Injuria non excusat injuriam - A wrong does not excuse a wrong.
210. Intentio inservire debet legibus, non leges intentioni - Intention
ought to be subservient to the laws, not the laws to the intention.
211. Inter alia - Amongst other things.
212. Interest reipublicae res judicatas non rescindi - It is in the
interest of the State that things adjudged be not rescinded.
213. Interest reipublicae suprema hominum testamenta rata haberi - It
is in the interest of the State that men s last wills be sustained.
214. Interest reipublicae ut quilibet re sua bene utatur - It is in the
interest of the State that every one use properly his own property.
215. Interest reipublicase ut sit finis litium - It is in the interest
of the State that there be an end to litigation.
216. Interim - Temporary, in the meanwhile.
217. Interpretare et concordare leges legibus est optimus interpretandi
modus - To interpret and harmonize laws is the best method of interpretation.
218. Interpretatio fienda est ut res magis valeat quam pereat - Such a
construction is to be made that the thing may have effect rather than it should
219. Interruptio multiplex non tollit praescriptionem semel obtentam -
Repeated interruption does not defeat a prescription once obtained.
220. Invito beneficium non datur - A benefit is not conferred upon one
against his consent.
221. Ipsissima verba - The very words of a speaker.
222. Ipso facto - By that very fact.
223. Ira furor brevis est - Anger is brief insanity.
224. Iter arma leges silent - In war the laws are silent.
225. Judex est lex loquens - A judge is the law speaking.
226. Judex non potest esse testis in propira causa - A judge cannot be
witness in his own cause.
227. Judex non potest injuriam sibi datam punire - A judge cannon
punish a wrong done to himself.
228. Judex non reddit plus quam quod petens ipse requirit - A judge
does not give more than the plaintiff himself demands.
229. Judiciis posterioribus fides est adhibenda - Faith must be given
to later decisions.
230. Judicis est judicare secundum allegata et probata - It is the duty
of a judge to decide according to the allegations and the proofs.
231. Judicium non debet esse illusorium, suum effectum habere debet - A
judgment ought not to be illusory; it ought to have its proper effect.
232. Juduces non tenentur exprimere causam sententiae suae - Judges are
not bound to explain the reason of their judgment.
233. Jura naturae sunt immutabilia - The laws of nature are immutable.
234. Jura publica anteferenda privatis juribus - Public rights are to
be preferred to private rights.
235. Juramentum est indivisibile et non est admittendum in parte verum
et in parte falsum - An oath is indivisible and it is not to be held partly
true and partly false.
236. Jurare est Deum in testem vocare, et est actus divini cultus - To
swear is to call God to witness and is an act of divine worship.
237. Jus - A right that is recognised in law.
238. Jus accrescendi praefertur oneribus - The right of survivorship is
preferred to incumbrances.
239. Jus ad rem; jus in re - A right to a thing; a right in a thing.
240. Jus dicere, non jus dare - To declare the law, not to make the
241. Jus est norma recti; et quicquid est contra normam recti est
injuria - The law is a rule of right; and whatever is contrary to a rule of
right is an injury.
242. Jus naturale - Natural justice.
243. Jus naturale est quod apud omnes homines eandem habet potentiam -
Natural right is that which has the same force among all men.
244. Jus scriptum aut non scriptum - The written law or the unwritten
245. Jusjurandum inter alios factum nec nocere nec prodesse debet - An
oath made between third parties ought neither to hurt nor profit.
246. Justitia est duplec; severe puniens et vere praeveniens - Justice
is two-fold; severely punishing and in reality prohibiting (offences).
247. Justitia firmatur solium - The throne is established by justice.
248. Justitia nemini neganda est - Justice is to be denied to no one
249. Leges posteriores priores contrarias abrogant - Subsequent laws
repeal prior conflicting ones.
250. Legibus sumptis desinentibus legibus naturae utendum est - When
laws imposed by the State fail, we must use the laws of nature.
251. Lex aliquando sequitur aequitatem - The law sometimes follows
252. Lex citius tolerare vult privatum damnum quam publicum malum - The
law would rather tolerate a private injury than a public evil.
253. Lex dabit remedium - The law will give a remedy.
254. Lex dilationes abhorret - The law abhors delays.
255. Lex est judicum tutissimus ductor - The law is the safest guide
256. Lex est sanctio sancta jubens honesta et prohibens contraria - The
law is a sacred sanction, commanding what is right and prohibiting the
257. Lex indendit vicinum vicini facta scire - The law presumes that
one neighbor knows the acts of another.
258. Lex necessitatis est lex temporis i.e. instantis - The law of
necessity is the law of time, that is time present.
259. Lex neminem cogit ad vana seu impossiblia - The law compels no one
to do vain or impossible things.
260. Lex nil frustra facit - The law does nothing in vain.
261. Lex non a rege est violanda - The law must not be violated even by
262. Lex non deficere potest in justitia exhibenda - The law cannot
fail in dispensing justice.
263. Lex non novit patrem, nec matrem; solam veritatem - The law does
not know neither father nor mother, only the truth.
264. Lex non oritur ex injuria - The law does not arise from a mere
265. Lex non requirit verificari quod apparet curiae - The law does not
require that to be proved which is apparent to the Court.
266. Lex non favet delicatorum votis - The law does not favor the
wishes of the dainty.
267. Lex plus laudatur quando ratione probatur - The law is the more
praised when it is supported by reason.
268. Lex prospicit not respicit - The law looks forwared, not backward.
269. Lex punit mendaciam - The law punishes falsehood.
270. Lex rejicit superflua, pugnatia, incongrua - The law rejects
superfluous, contradictory and incongruous things.
271. Lex spectat naturae ordinem - The law regards the order of nature.
272. Lex succurrit ignoranti - The law succors the ignorant.
273. Lex tutissima cassis, sub clypeo legis nemo decipitur - Law is the
safest helmet; under the shield of the law no one is deceived.
274. Lex uno ore omnes alloquitur - The law speaks to all through one
275. Longa possessio est pacis jus - Long possession is the law of
276. Longa possessio parit jus possidendi et tollit actionem vero
domino - Long possession produces the right of possession and takes away from
the true owner his action.
277. Magister rerum usus; magistra rerum experientia - Use is the
master of things; experience is the mistress of things.
278. Major continet in se minus - The greater contains the less.
279. Majus est delictum se ipsum occidere quam alium - It is a greater
crime to kill one s self than another.
280. Mala fide - In bad faith.
281. Mala grammatica non vitiat chartam - Bad grammar does not vitiate
282. Mala in se - Bad in themselves.
283. Mala prohibita - Crimes prohibited.
284. Malitia supplet aesatem - Malice supplies age.
285. Malo animo - With evil intent.
286. Mandamus - We command.
287. Maximus magister erroris populus est - The people are the greatest
master of error.
288. Melior est conditio possidentis, ubi neuter jus habet - Better is
the condition of the possessor where neither of the two has the right.
289. Melior testatoris in testamentis spectanda est - In wills the
intention of a testator is to be regarded.
290. Meliorem conditionem suam facere potest minor deteriorem nequaquam
- A minor can make his position better, never worse.
291. Mens rea - Guilty state of mind.
292. Mentiri est contra mentem ire - To lie is to act against the mind.
293. Merito beneficium legis amittit, qui legem ipsam subvertere
intendit - He justly loses the benefit of the law who seeks to infringe the
294. Minatur innocentibus qui parcit nocentibus - He threatens the
innocent who spares the guilty.
295. Misera est servitus, ubi jus est vagum aut incertum - It is a
miserable slavery where the law is vague or uncertain.
296. Mors dicitur ultimum supplicium - Death is called the extreme
297. Muilta exercitatione facilius quam regulis percipies - You will
perceive many things more easily by experience than by rules.
298. Nam nemo haeres viventis - For no one is an heir of a living
299. Naturae vis maxima est - The force of nature is the greatest.
300. Necessitas inducit privilegium quoad jura privata - With respect
to private rights necessity induces privilege.
301. Necessitas non habet legem - Necessity has no law.
302. Necessitas publica est major quam privata - Public necessity is
greater than private necessity.
303. Negligentia semper habet infortuniam comitem - Negligence always
has misfortune for a companion.
304. Nemo admittendus est inhabilitare se ipsum - No one is allowed to
305. Nemo bis punitur pro eodem delicto - No one can be twice punished
for the same offence.
306. Nemo cogitur suam rem vendere, etiam justo pretio - No one is
bound to sell his own property, even for a just price.
307. Nemo contra factum suum venire potest - No man can contradict his
308. Nemo debet esse judex in propria causa - No one can be judge in
his own case.
309. Nemo plus juris transferre ad alium potest quam ipse habet - No
one can transfer to another a larger right than he himself has.
310. Nemo potest contra recordum verificare per patriam - No one can
verify by the country, that is, through a jury, against the record.
311. Nemo potest esse tenens et dominus - No one can at the same time
be a tenant and a landlord (of the same tenement).
312. Nemo potest facere per alium, quod per se non potest - No one can
do through another what he cannot do himself.
313. Nemo potest mutare consilium suum in alterius injuriam - No one
can change his purpose to the injury of another.
314. Nemo praesumitur esse immemor suae aeternae salutis et maxime in
articulo mortis - No one is presumed to be forgetful of his eternal welfare,
and particularly in the hour of death.
315. Nemo prohibetur pluribus defensionibus uti - No one is forbidden
to make use of several defences.
316. Nemo punitur pro alieno delicto - No one is punished for the crime
317. Nemo se accusare debet, nisi coram Deo - No one should accuse
himself except in the presence of God.
318. Nemo tenetur accusare se ipsum nisi coram Deo - No one is bound to
accuse himself except in the presence of God.
319. Nemo tenetur armare adversarium contra se - No one is bound to arm
his adversary against himself.
320. Nexus - Connection
321. Nihil quod est inconveniens est licitum - Nothing inconvenient is
322. Nil facit error nominis cum de corpore constat - An error of name
makes not difference when it appears from the body of the instrument.
323. Nisi - Unless
324. Non compus mentis - Not of sound mind and understanding
325. Non constat - It is not certain
326. Non decipitur qui scit se decipi - He is not deceived who knows
that he is deceived.
327. Non definitur in jure quid sit conatus - What an attempt is, is
not defined in law.
328. Non est arctius vinculum inter homines quam jusjurandum - There is
no stronger link among men than an oath.
329. Non est factum - It is not his deed
330. Non est informatus - He is not informed.
331. Non facias malum ut inde veniat bonum - You shall not do evil that
good may come of it.
332. Non jus, sed seisina, facit stipitem - Not right, but seisin makes
a stock (from which the inheritance must descend).
333. Non refert quid notum sit judici si notum non sit in forma judicii
- It matters not what is known to the judge if it is not known judicially.
334. Non sequitur - An inconsistent statement, it does not follow
335. Nullus commodum capere potest ex sua injuria propria - No one can
derive an advantage from his own wrong.
336. Nullus recedat e curia cancellaria sine remedio - No one should
depart from a Court of Chancery without a remedy.
337. Omne sacramentum debet esse de certa scientia - Every oath ought
to be of certain knowledge.
338. Omnia delicta in aperto leviora sunt - All crimes (committed) in
the open are (considered) lighter.
339. Omnia praesumuntur contra spoliatorem - All things are presumed
against a wrongdoer.
340. Omnis innovatio plus novitate perturbat quam utilitate prodeat -
Every innovation disturbs more by its novelty than it benefits by its utility.
341. Optima legum interpres est consuetudo - The best interpreter of
laws is custom.
342. Optimus interpres rerum est usus - The best interpreter of things
343. Pacta privata juri publico non derogare possunt - Private
contracts cannot derogate from public law.
344. Par delictum - Equal fault.
345. Pari passu - On an equal footing.
346. Partus sequitur ventrem - The offspring follows the mother.
347. Pater est quem nuptiae demonstrant - The father is he whom the
marriage points out.
348. Peccata contra naturam sunt gravissima - Wrongs against nature are
the most serious.
349. Pendente lite nihil innovetur - During litigation nothing should
350. Per curiam - In the opinion of the court.
351. Per minas - By means of menaces or threats.
352. Per quod - By reason of which.
353. Post mortem - After death.
354. Prima facie - On the face of it.
355. Prima impressionis - On first impression.
356. Pro hac vice - For this occasion.
357. Pro rata - In proportion.
358. Pro tanto - So far, to that extent.
359. Pro tempore - For the time being.
360. Publici juris - Of public right.
361. Quaeitur - The question is raised.
362. Quantum - How much, an amount.
363. Qui facit per alium, facit per se - He who acts through another
364. Qui haeret in litera, haeret in cortice - He who stices to the
letter, sticks to the bark.
365. Qui in utero est, pro jam nato habetur, quoties de ejus commodo
quaeritur - He who is in the womb is considered as already born as far as his
benefit is considered.
366. Qui non habet potestatem alienandi, habet necessitatem retinendi -
He who has not the power of alienating is under the necessity of retaining.
367. Qui non habet, ille non dat - He who has not, does not give.
368. Qui non improbat, approbat - He who does not disapprove, approves.
369. Qui non obstat quod obstare potest facere videtur - He who does
not prevent what he is able to prevent, is considered as committing the thing.
370. Qui non prohibet quod prohibere potest assentire videtur - He who
does not prohibit when he is able to prohibit, is in fault.
371. Qui peccat ebrius, luat sobrius - He who does wrong when drunk
must be punished when sober.
372. Qui potest et debet vetare et non vetat jubet - He who is able and
ought to forbit and does not, commands.
373. Qui prior est tempore potior est jure - He who is prior in time is
stronger in right.
374. Qui sentit commodum, debet et sentire onus - He who derives a
benefit ought also to bear a burden.
375. Qui tacet consentire videtur - He who is silent appears to
376. Quid pro quo - Consideration. something for something.
377. Quidcquid plantatur solo, solo cedit - Whatever is planted in or
affixed to the soil, belongs to the soil.
378. Quod ab initio non valet, in tractu temporis non convalescit -
What is not valid in the beginning does not become valid by time.
379. Quod constat curiae opere testium non indiget - What appears to
the Court needs not the help of witnesses.
380. Quod necessarie intelligitur, id non deest - What is necessarily
understood is not wanting.
381. Quod necessitas cogit, defendit - What necessity forces it
382. Quod non apparet, non est - What does not appear, is not.
383. Quod non habet principium non habet finem - What has no beginning
has no end.
384. Quod per me non possum, nec per alium - What I cannot do through
myself, I cannot do through another.
385. Quod prius est verius est; et quod prius est tempore potius est
jure - What is first is more true; and what is prior in time is stronger in
386. Quod vanum et inutile est, lex non requirit - The law does not
require what is vain and useless.
387. Quoties in verbis nulla est ambiguitas, ibi nulla expositio contra
verba expressa fienda est - When there is no ambiguity in words, then no
exposition contrary to the expressed words is to be made.
388. Ratio est legis anima, mutata legis ratione mutatur et lex -
Reason is the soul of the law; when the reason of the law changes the law also
389. Re - In the matter of.
390. Recognition is the greatest motivator - Agnitio est maioribus
391. Reprobata pecunia leberat solventem - Money refused releases the
392. Res - Matter, affair, thing, circumstance.
393. Res gestae - Things done.
394. Res integra - A matter untouched (by decision).
395. Res inter alios acta alteri nocere non debet - Things done between
strangers ought not to affect a third person, who is a stranger to the
396. Res judicata accipitur pro veritate - A thing adjudged is accepted
for the truth.
397. Res nulis - Nobody s property.
398. Respondeat superior - Let the principal answer.
399. Rex est major singulis, minor universis - The King is greater than
individuals, less than all the people.
400. Rex non debet judicare sed secundum legem - The King ought not to
judge but according to the law.
401. Rex non potest peccare - The King can do no wrong.
402. Rex nunquma moritur - The King never dies.
403. Rex quod injustum est facere non potest - The King cannot do what
404. Salus populi est suprema lex - The safety of the people is the
405. Sciens - Knowingly.
406. Scienter - Knowingly.
407. Scire facias - That you cause to know.
408. Scribere est agere - To write is to act.
409. Se defendendo - In self defence.
410. Secus - The legal position is different, it is otherwise.
411. Semper praesumitur pro legitimatione puerorum - Everything is
presumed in favor of the legitimacy of children.
412. Semper pro matriomonio praesumitur - It is always presumed in
favor of marriage.
413. Sententia interlocutoria revocari potest, definitiva non potest -
An interlocutory order can be revoked, a final order cannot be.
414. Servitia personalia sequuntur personam - Personal services follow
415. Sic utere tuo ut alienum non laedas - So use your own as not to
injure another s property.
416. Simplex commendatio non obligat - A simple recommendation does not
417. Stare decisis - To stand by decisions (precedents).
418. Stet - Do not delete, let it stand.
419. Sub modo - Within limits.
420. Sub nomine - Under the name of.
421. Sub silentio - In silence.
422. Sublata causa, tollitur effectus - The cause being removed, the
423. Sublato fundamento, cadit opus - The foundation being removed, the
424. Subsequens matrimonium tollit peccatum praecedens - A subsequent
marriage removes the preceding wrong.
425. Suggestio falsi - The suggestion of something which is untrue.
426. Sui generis - Unique.
427. Summa ratio est quae pro religione facit - The highest reason is
that which makes for religion, i.e. religion dictates.
428. Suppressio veri - The suppression of the truth.
429. Suppressio veri expressio falsi - A suppression of truth is
equivalent to an expression of falsehood.
430. Talis qualis - Such as it is.
431. Terra firma - Solid ground.
432. Testamenta latissimam interpretationem habere debent - Testaments
ought to have the broadest interpretation.
433. Traditio loqui chartam facit - Delivery makes a deed speak.
434. Transit terra cum onere - The land passes with its burden
435. Ubi eadem ratio ibi idem jus, et de similibus idem est judicium -
When there is the same reason, then the law is the same, and the same judgment
should be rendered as to similar things.
436. Ubi jus ibi remedium est - Where there is a right there is a
437. Ubi non est principalis, non potest esse accessorius - Where there
is no principal, there can be no accessory.
438. Ubi nullum matrimonium, ibi nulla dos es - Where there is no
marriage, there is no dower.
439. Ultima voluntas testatoris est perimplenda secundum veram
intentionem suam - The last will of a testator is to be fulfilled according to
his true intentio.
440. Ut poena ad paucos, metus ad omnes, perveniat - That punishment
may come to a few, the fear of it should affect all.
441. Utile per inutile non vitiatur - What is useful is not vitiated by
442. Verba chartarum fortius accipiuntur contra preferentem - The words
of deeds are accepted more strongly against the person offering them.
443. Verba debent intelligi cum effectu - Words ought to be understood
444. Verba intentioni, non e contra, debent inservire - Words ought to
serve the intention, not the reverse.
445. Verbatim - Word by word, exactly.
446. Vi et armis - With the force and arms.
447. Via antiqua via est tuta - The old way is the safe way.
448. Vice versa - The other way around.
449. Vide - See.
450. Vigilantibus non dormientibus jura subveniunt - The laws serve the
vigilant, not those who sleep.
451. Vir et uxor consentur in lege una persona - A husband and wife are
regarded in law as one person.
452. Visitationem commendamus - We recommend a visitation.
453. Volens - Willing.
454. Volenti non fit injuria - An injury is not done to one consenting
455. Voluntas in delictis non exitus spectatur - In offences the intent
and not the result is looked at.
456. Voluntas reputatur pro facto - The will is taken for the deed.
Cases and their delivered judgments are identified
by citations, these are known as ‘case laws’. In simpler definition, law that
is derived from a decision given in a case is called a ‘case law’. Hence, if
the same facts and circumstances arise again, the law that was laid down in a
judgment relating to the same set of facts and circumstances will apply to that
case also; only when the factual position is different a judgment deliver in a
case will not apply to different facts and circumstances. Thus, it is important
to understand how a citation is interpreted. A judgment can be reported in
State of Rajasthan vs. Union of India,
AIR 1977 SC 1361, 1977 (2) SCC 592, 1978 (1) SCR 1
The above case has three citations, meaning it is
available in three publications.
 AIR 1977 SC 1361
Name of the Publisher- AIR (All India Reporter)
Year of publication- 1977
Type of court case reported- SC (Supreme Court)
Page number- 1361
 1977 (2) SCC 592
Name of the Publisher- SCC (Supreme Court Cases)
Year of publication- 1977
Book volume number- 2nd Volume
Page number- 592
 1978 (1) SCR 1
LAW OF TORTS
Name of the Publisher- SCR (Supreme Court Reports)
Year of publication- 1978
Book volume number- 1st Volume
Page number- 1